I follow a blog written by the Recess Doctor which I highly recommend. The blog reported on a research study done in 2005 supporting painting lines on a playground.
Preventive Medicine published research that found when markings were painted on the playground, moderate to vigorous physical activity increased by 37% whereas the control groups activity (no lines) decreased by 16%. For elementary students, lines consisted of ladders, letter squares, mazes, trails and more. For older primary students markings for netball, football, targets and more were created.
If you are interested in increasing physical activity time for children try:
Sidewalk Chalk Fun and Games -
This ebook includes 30 sidewalk chalk games that encourage physical activity - only $4.99
If you are looking for permanent line markings for your playground visit the Peaceful Playgrounds website. With school budgets tight this year, they offer plenty of advice on grant writing to get your playground markings.
Reference: STRATTON, G., & MULLAN, E. (2005). The effect of multicolor playground markings on children's physical activity level during recess Preventive Medicine, 41 (5-6), 828-833 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.07.009