The results indicated the following:
- compared to walkers, crawlers' field of view contained less walls and more floor.
- walkers directed gaze straight ahead at caregivers, whereas crawlers looked down at the floor.
- crawlers obtained visual information about targets at higher elevations—caregivers and toys—by craning their heads upward and sitting up to bring the room into view.
Reference: Kari S. Kretch, John M. Franchak, Karen E. Adolph. Crawling and Walking Infants See the World Differently. Child Development. Early View Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013