The Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology compared muscle activity patterns using an electronic tablet when performing a tracing task and copying figures in sitting on a horizontal plane and when standing in front of a wall on a vertical plane in 35, five to six year old children.
The results showed the following:
1. different muscle activation patterns were observed between the postures, however no significant difference in the performance level was found, providing evidence of motor equivalence at this young age.
The researchers concluded that the study presents a straightforward method of assessing motor equivalence that can be used during other stages of development as well as motor disorders.
Reference: Portnoy, S et al. Differences in muscle activity patterns and graphical product quality in children copying and tracing activities on horizontal or vertical surfaces. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. Volume 25, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages 540–547