"1. blocking the child from eating an inappropriate object, by shadowing the child or, in a few cases, through physical restraint; this mode fades over time.
2. redirecting the child toward a preferred activity.
3. rewarding the child for disposing of an inedible object with a small treat".
The review indicated that the average reduction in pica from baseline to final treatment, in this clinical setting, was 96 percent. The research team's standard practice was to train parents and caregivers and provide follow up help if needed for up to 6 months. In addition for the children in this study, pica was an “automatically maintained” behavior, not attention seeking or manipulative. The behaviors did not stop after proper nutrition supplementation was provided.
Reference: Woodruff Health Sciences Center. Behavioral therapy effective against pica in children with autism spectrum disorder. Retrieved from the web on 2/11/15 at http://news.emory.edu/stories/2015/02/marcus_pica_treatment/index.html.